Scientists Have Found A New Bood Group In Human-Amazing

Scientists Have Found A New Bood Group In Human-Amazing,Must Read This Know What is the new blood group in this world

The unborn child was in trouble. Its mother’s doctors at a UK hospital knew something was wrong with the fetus’s blood, so they decided to have an emergency C-section several weeks before the baby was born. But despite this and subsequent blood transfusions, the child suffered a brain haemorrhage with disastrous consequences. that child died.

Scientists-Have-Found-A-New-Bood-Group-In-Human
Scientists-Have-Found-A-New-Bood-Group-In-Human

It was not clear what caused the bleeding. But there was a clue in the mother’s blood, where doctors had noticed some strange antibodies. Not long after, as doctors tried to learn more about them, a sample of the mother’s blood arrived at a laboratory in Bristol run by researchers studying blood groups(New Bood Group In Human).

They made a startling discovery: the woman’s blood was of an extremely rare type(New Bood Group In Human), which may have made her child’s blood incompatible with her own. It’s possible that this prompted her immune system to produce antibodies against her baby’s blood—antibodies that then crossed the placenta and harmed her baby, eventually causing her to suffer. It may seem unlikely that this could happen, but several decades ago, before doctors had a better understanding of blood groups, it was much more common.

By studying a sample of the mother’s blood, along with many others, scientists were able to pick out exactly what made her blood different, and in the process confirmed a new set of blood groupings – the “er” system. , described 44th system.

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You are probably familiar with the four main blood types—A, B, O, and AB. But this is not the only blood classification system. There are several ways to group red blood cells based on differences in the sugars or proteins that cover their surface, known as antigens. Grouping systems run concurrently, so your blood can be classified into each—for example, the ABO system may have type O, the rhesus system positive (instead of negative), and so on.

Thanks to the difference in antigens, if someone receives incompatible blood from a donor, for example, the recipient’s immune system can recognize those antigens as foreign and react against them. This can be extremely dangerous, and is why the donated blood should be a suitable match if someone is being transfused.

A new blood classification(New Bood Group In Human) system has been described by researchers on average every year during the past decade. These new systems include blood types that are mind-bogglingly rare, but for those touched by them, knowing they have such blood could be a lifesaver. This is the story of how scientists solved the mystery of the latest blood system—and why it matters.

It was back in 1982 that researchers first described an abnormal antibody in a blood sample that indicated the mystery blood type was out. Scientists at the time couldn’t go much further than this, but they knew that the antibody was a clue pointing to an unknown molecule or structure that prompted the person’s immune system to produce it.

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In subsequent years, more people with these abnormal antibodies were exposed – but only infrequently. Usually, these people were exposed to blood tests containing mysterious and rare antibodies. Eventually, Nicole Thornton and her colleagues at NHS Blood & Transplant in the United Kingdom decided to see what might be behind the antibodies. “We work on rare cases,” she says. “It starts with a patient with a problem we’re trying to solve.”

But the latest work found the mysterious antibodies so rare that when the team began their investigation, they only had 13 people’s historical blood samples—collected over 40 years—for analysis. Other recently installed systems have been found thanks to an equally small number of people. Back in 2020, Thornton and colleagues described a new blood group called MAM-negative, which at the time had been confirmed in just 11 people worldwide. And some of the more recently discovered blood groups have been found in nuclear families, she adds. Both “MAM” and “er” are vague references to the names of patients whose blood samples gave rise to the possibility of the discovery of a new blood group for the first time.

It turns out that the new, 44th group system, detailed in the journal Blood, is linked to a special protein found on the surface of red blood cells.

Originally, Thornton called this protein Piezo1, after comparing the genomes of patients involved in the study. She and colleagues looked at how the gene responsible for this protein differed in people with different Er blood types. Because of those genetic differences, very few people have alternative amino acids or building blocks in their Piezo 1 proteins. Blood cells with the more common Piezo1 protein as a result appear foreign to their body’s immune system.

The team then checked to see if the antibodies reacted with laboratory cultures, which either contained mutant versions of the Piezo1 protein, which they had created using gene editing. This allowed them to confirm that the difference

Piezo1 actually had a driver of blood incompatibility in the people whose samples they were looking at. “It was something you couldn’t have done a few years ago,” says co-author Ash Toy, professor of cell biology at the University of Bristol.

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There are a total of five ER antigens—five possible variations of Piezo1 on the surface of red blood cells that can lead to incompatibility. Two antigens were described by Thornton and her fellow researchers, and one of them was detected in the blood of a pregnant woman in the UK who had lost her baby.

The results of the study will be officially approved as defining a new blood group system at a meeting of the International Society of Blood Transfusion later this year. The effort required to make this discovery was “massive,” says Neil Avent, honorary professor in the blood diagnostics group at the University of Plymouth, who was not involved in the work. It also revealed complications about this rare blood—there are several genetic mutations associated with it, for example.

Across the Atlantic, a different team of researchers was also trying to unravel the secrets of the new Ar blood group, but was beaten by the British team. “That’s what happens in this area,” says Connie Westhoff of the New York Blood Center, who was part of the US research. “We often know that we are rushing to find solutions in many different labs.”

She says she and her colleagues have additional blood samples that appear to be of people with a rare ER blood group. And the research may not be over, she suggests—it takes potentially more genetic mutations to uncover this rare blood.

“Discovering a new blood group system is like discovering a new planet. It broadens the landscape of our reality,” says Daniela Hermelin at St. Louis University School of Medicine, who was not involved in the study. She explains that This increases our knowledge of how blood incompatibility can affect expectant mothers and their babies, she explains. And now that cases of blood incompatibility can potentially be attributed to the Er blood group, she explains. This increases the chance that doctors can correctly diagnose and treat this type of problem – for example, by giving a blood transfusion to the baby in the womb.

It would also be possible to find and identify patients with troublesome blood. For example, a person may go to the hospital for a transfusion and have a preliminary blood test that reveals the presence of certain abnormal antibodies. The doctor may send the blood for analysis, and it may turn out that they have the rare Er blood described in the paper. “We’ve set up our test to be able to do this,” Thornton says. She adds that a transfusion of that person may require rare blood. In the future, scientists in a laboratory may be able to grow red blood cells that can be offered to these patients for transfusion purposes.

It’s very unlikely that you will have an incompatibility with someone else’s blood because of the Er antigen, says Avent. But “if you do, it’s something you’re going to want to know about.”

Source:www.wired.com

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